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¿Qué son las deducciones de impuestos detalladas?

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

A la hora de reducir tu ingreso gravable, detallar tus deducciones puede maximizar tu ahorro en impuestos.


 

El siguiente artículo es correcto para sus impuestos de 2017, mismo que presentaras este año antes de la fecha límite de abril de 2018, incluyendo algunos cambios retroactivos debido a la aprobación de la reforma tributaria. Parte de la información fiscal mencionada a continuación cambiará el próximo año para su declaración de impuestos de 2018, pero no lo afectará este año.

 

Cuando estás en la búsqueda de formas de reducir tu ingreso gravable, detallar tus deducciones realmente puede maximizar tu ahorro en impuestos. El beneficio de detallar es que te permite reclamar una deducción mayor a la deducción estándar. Sin embargo, requiere que completes un Listado A adjunto a tu declaración y que mantengas un registro de todos tus gastos.

Los tipos de deducciones detallados

Las deducciones detalladas incluyen una serie de gastos que no son deducibles de otra manera. Los gastos comunes incluyen los intereses hipotecarios que pagas por un máximo de dos viviendas, los impuestos sobre ingresos locales o estatales o los impuestos a las ventas, impuestos a la propiedad, gastos médicos y dentales que excedan el 7,5 por ciento de tu ingreso bruto ajustado, así como las donaciones de caridad que realices. Las deducciones detalladas incluyen algunas deducciones misceláneas tales como viajes de trabajo y las cuotas sindicales. Una vez que decidas detallarlas, tienes derecho a reclamarlas.

Requisitos para detallar

Para reclamar deducciones detalladas, debes presentar tu declaración de impuestos usando el Formulario 1040 y la lista de tus deducciones detalladas en el Listado A. No puedes presentar tu declaración de impuestos utilizando los formularios 1040A o 1040EZ si deseas detallar tus deducciones, ya que sólo se puede realizar la deducción estándar en estos formularios más cortos.

Una vez que hayas introducido tus gastos en las líneas correspondientes del Listado A, súmalos y copia el total en la segunda página de tu Formulario 1040. Esta cantidad se restará de tus ingresos para llegar al número final de tu ingreso gravable.

Decidir si vas a detallar

Al decidir si vas detallar, es necesario recordar que estarás renunciando a la deducción estándar. Por lo tanto, después de sumar tus deducciones detalladas, es necesario que te asegures de que el total sea mayor que la deducción estándar para tu estado civil en la declaración. Si no es así, entonces realmente vas a pagar más impuestos si detallas.

El Formulario 1040A te permite reclamar ciertas deducciones y créditos comunes (como créditos de educación), sin dejar de reclamar la deducción estándar. Las instrucciones para el Formulario 1040A explican las deducciones y créditos que puedes reclamar en el mismo.

Cuando utilices TurboTax para preparar tus impuestos, vamos a hacerte preguntas sencillas acerca de tu situación fiscal y vamos a recomendarte si detallar o reclamar la deducción estándar te conseguirá un reembolso de impuestos más grande (o un impuesto adeudado más bajo).

Implicaciones del impuesto mínimo alternativo

Si estás sujeto al impuesto mínimo alternativo, una parte o la totalidad de las deducciones detalladas que reclames pueden ser reducidas o eliminadas. Por ejemplo, la deducción de gastos médicos y dentales se reducirá y no se podrá realizar la deducción del interés de los préstamos con garantía hipotecaria. Además, no se pueden descontar los impuestos sobre ingresos locales o estatales ni los impuestos de ventas, honorarios por la preparación de declaración de impuestos y gastos de empleados no reembolsados.

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The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.

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