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  5. ¿Qué son las deducciones estándares fiscales?

¿Qué son las deducciones estándares fiscales?

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

La deducción fiscal estándar es una cantidad fija que el sistema fiscal te permite deducir, sin hacerte preguntas.


Las deducciones fiscales permiten a los individuos y a las empresas restar ciertos gastos de sus ingresos gravables, reduciendo así su factura fiscal global. El sistema fiscal te da una opción de sumar todos los gastos deducibles, y aportar las pruebas de todos esos gastos al IRS bajo petición o, simplemente, deducir una cantidad fija sin hacerte preguntas. Esa cantidad fija se llama una "deducción estándar".

que son las deducciones estandares fiscales

Conocimientos básicos de la deducción estándar

La deducción estándar garantiza que todos los contribuyentes tengan al menos un ingreso que no esté sujeto al impuesto sobre la renta federal. Las deducciones estándares generalmente aumentan cada año debido a la inflación. Tienes la opción de reclamar la deducción estándar o de detallar tus deducciones. Sin embargo, nunca podrás reclamar los dos en el mismo año. Encontrarás que muchos estados que imponen un impuesto sobre la renta también te permitirán reclamar un tipo de deducción similar en tu declaración de impuestos estatales.

Cantidades de deducción estándar

La cantidad de tu deducción estándar dependerá del estado civil de presentación de la declaración a la cual califiques. En 2017, por ejemplo, los contribuyentes individuales y los contribuyentes casados que presentan declaraciones por separado, cada uno puede reclamar una deducción estándar de US$ 6.350. Las parejas casadas que declaran conjuntamente pueden reclamar una cantidad que es el doble de grande, US$ 12.700, y los contribuyentes que presentan una declaración como "cabeza de familia" (personas solteras con familiares a cargo) pueden reclamar una deducción estándar de US$ 9.350. Esta cantidad puede cambiar en cualquier año, así que asegúrate de verificar la cantidad de deducción estándar a tu disposición en el año en que vas a presentar tu declaración de impuestos.

Incrementos de la deducción estándar

El sistema de impuesto sobre la renta federal aumenta la deducción estándar para los contribuyentes que tienen 65 años o más, son ciegos, o ambos. El IRS permite el ajuste por ceguera para las personas que están parcialmente o totalmente ciegas. El código fiscal define "parcialmente ciego" el tener un campo de visión de no más de 20 grados o una visión corregida no mayor a 20/200; necesitarás un certificado de un oftalmólogo que soporte tu reclamo. Muchos estados ofrecen ajustes similares para la edad y la ceguera.

Situaciones especiales

Algunos contribuyentes no pueden tomar la deducción estándar federal. Si estás casado pero presentas los impuestos por separado y tu cónyuge detalla sus deducciones en su declaración, entonces no puedes reclamar la deducción estándar. Tampoco puedes reclamarla si tú (o tu cónyuge si presentan una declaración conjunta) eres un extranjero no residente en cualquier momento durante el año fiscal. Por último, si cambias tu período anual de contabilidad y presentas una declaración que cubre menos de 12 meses, la deducción estándar no está disponible.

Deducción estándar vs detallada

Es mucho más fácil reclamar la deducción estándar que hacerla detalladamente, pero te podría costar dinero. El IRS te recomienda que tomes tu tiempo para verificar los números para ver qué opción te da una deducción más grande (TurboTax hará esto por ti).

En particular, podrías considerar la opción de detallar si has realizado importantes donaciones de caridad, si has pagado los intereses hipotecarios y los impuestos de propiedad de tu casa, o si has tenido una gran cantidad de gastos médicos realizados de tu propio bolsillo, gastos no reembolsados de trabajo o pérdidas no aseguradas de un robo o accidente, como un incendio o desastre natural.

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The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.


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