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¿Qué son los créditos fiscales educativos?

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

Si tú o tu dependiente son estudiantes, es posible que desees determinar si eres elegible para uno de los dos créditos fiscales educativos que cubren los gastos comunes de los estudiantes. Aprende más sobre estos créditos y cómo puedes beneficiarte de ellos.


Introducción

Si tú o tu dependiente son estudiantes, puede que desees determinar si eres elegible para uno de los dos créditos fiscales educativos que cubren los gastos comunes de los estudiantes. Estos créditos ofrecen mayores ahorros de impuestos que un descuento por matrícula, ya que reducen tus impuestos finales sobre una base de dólar por dólar. Si eres elegible para reclamar ambos créditos, debes elegir el que ofrece el mayor ahorro de impuestos para ti.

que son los creditos fiscales educativos

Crédito de la Oportunidad Americana

El Crédito de la Oportunidad Americana puede ahorrar hasta US$ 2.500 en impuestos para los gastos de educación de cada estudiante elegible. Para calificar, el estudiante debe obtener un título en una escuela que sea elegible para participar en el programa de ayuda estudiantil federal. El crédito sólo está disponible para los estudiantes en sus primeros cuatro años de asistencia, que se inscriban por lo menos medio tiempo para un período académico durante el año fiscal y no posean una condena por drogas.

El monto del crédito incluye los gastos en los que incurres para la matrícula, cuotas y libros relacionados con el curso, los suministros y equipos necesarios para asistir a la institución. Si el monto del crédito excede el monto del impuesto que debes, puedes recibir hasta US$ 1.000 del crédito en forma de reembolso.

Crédito de Aprendizaje de Por Vida (Lifetime Learning)

El Crédito de Aprendizaje de Por Vida (Lifetime Learning) está disponible para todos los contribuyentes que asisten al menos a un curso durante el año en una institución elegible para participar en el programa de ayuda estudiantil federal. No es necesario que el alumno obtenga un título o certificación para calificar, y está disponible para cualquier año de estudio. El crédito cubre los gastos de matrícula y cuotas, más cualquier cantidad de libros y materiales que se requieran comprarlos directamente de la escuela.

Este crédito es de especial valor para los estudiantes que asisten a los programas de postgrado. A partir de 2017, el beneficio máximo del crédito es de US$ 2.000. Sin embargo, el crédito de Aprendizaje de Por Vida no es reembolsable si excede tu importe de impuestos para el año.

Descuentos por matrícula

Si prefieres reclamar una deducción por los gastos de la escuela en lugar de un crédito, el IRS (siglas en inglés de Servicio de Impuestos Internos) te permite descontar algo de tu matrícula y el pago de cuotas. Dado que este no es un gasto detallado, cualquier persona puede tomar esta deducción. Una cosa a tener en cuenta es que nunca se puede reclamar más de un beneficio fiscal de educación por estudiante, por año. No puedes reclamar una deducción por matrícula y un crédito fiscal en el mismo año por el mismo estudiante.

Preparación del Formulario 8863

Si reclamas cualquiera de las deducciones, el IRS requiere que llenes el Formulario 8863 y lo adjuntes a tu declaración de impuestos. El Formulario 8863 requiere que se calcule el monto del crédito adecuado en función de tus gastos escolares elegibles. Para reclamar el crédito tributario por ti mismo, no puedes ser reclamado como dependiente en la declaración de impuestos de un contribuyente diferente. De lo contrario, sólo el contribuyente tiene derecho a reclamar el crédito en tu nombre.

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