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Acerca de los créditos fiscales de los préstamos estudiantiles

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

El gobierno federal ofrece dos créditos fiscales que reducen tus impuestos finales por los gastos relacionados a tus estudios en una base de dólar a dólar.


Inscribirse en la universidad en la actualidad puede ser bastante costoso para el contribuyente promedio. Para aliviar la carga financiera, el gobierno federal ofrece dos créditos fiscales que reducen tus impuestos finales por los gastos relacionados a tus estudios en una base de dólar a dólar. Aunque no puedes pedir un crédito simplemente por tener un préstamo estudiantil, el hecho de pagar los gastos universitarios, aunque sea con dinero prestado, puede calificarte para pedir uno de estos créditos.

Crédito de la Oportunidad Americana (American Opportunity)

Los estudiantes que estén siguiendo una carrera que eventualmente los llevará a obtener un título en los primeros cuatro años de estudios, o aquéllos que estén pagando por su educación, pueden ser elegibles para reclamar el crédito de la Oportunidad Americana (American Opportunity). El crédito cubre los pagos de la matrícula más el costo de la compra de libros e insumos que necesitas, siempre y cuando seas un estudiante de, al menos, medio tiempo.
Con el precio de las matrículas en aumento, no es difícil calificar para el crédito máximo, la parte difícil es encontrar el dinero para pagar esos gastos. Cuando utilizas los fondos de un préstamo estudiantil para financiar tu educación, el Servicio de Rentas Internas (IRS, por sus siglas en inglés) te permite incluir los gastos que pagas con esos fondos dentro del crédito.

Crédito Lifetime Learning

Los estudiantes que ya han terminado sus primeros cuatro años de estudios post-secundaria, o quienes tomen diferentes cursos para mejorar sus habilidades laborales, pueden calificar para el crédito Lifetime Learning. Aunque el crédito cubre tu matrícula y cuotas, no podrás incluir los costos de libros e insumos a menos que la universidad requiera un pago directo por ellos.
Muchos estudiantes mayores también aprovechan los préstamos estudiantiles para pagar por su matrícula. Al igual que con el crédito de la Oportunidad Americana (American Opportunity), el IRS te permite pedir el crédito Lifetime Learning incluso si utilizas un préstamo estudiantil para pagar el 100% de tu matrícula. Por ejemplo, debido a que el crédito es equivalente al 20% de la matrícula y cuotas que pagas, incluso si pides prestados US$2.000 para pagar la matrícula de un curso, tu crédito será igual a US$400. Puedes ver esto como un descuento en tu préstamo estudiantil si tomas esos US$400 para pagar una parte de la deuda del mismo.

Formulario 8863 del IRS

Para cualquier año impositivo en el que pidas cualquiera de estos créditos fiscales, el IRS requiere que prepares un formulario 8863 y lo presentes junto con tu declaración de impuestos personal. Utilizas este formulario para informar tus gastos universitarios que reúnan las condiciones necesarias y para calcular el crédito. En la mayoría de los casos la universidad te notificará de los costos que cumplan con las condiciones requeridas para ese año antes de que prepares tu declaración de impuestos.

Si utilizas TurboTax para preparar tu declaración de impuestos nos aseguraremos de completar los formularios correctos por ti. Sólo necesitarás responder unas simples preguntas acerca de los gastos de tu educación.

Deducción de intereses del préstamo estudiantil

Los beneficios fiscales de tu préstamo estudiantil no terminan con estos créditos fiscales. Una deducción también está disponible para los pagos de intereses que realizas cuando comienzas a pagar tu préstamo. Aunque la cantidad que puedes deducir es limitada cada año, y sólo puedes deducir los intereses en los préstamos estudiantiles que utilizas para pagar gastos relacionados a tus estudios incluyendo tu habitación y comida. Pero incluso si utilizas una parte de los fondos para otros gastos personales como la financiación de tus vacaciones, la deducción no estará completamente perdida, sólo debes reducirla de forma equivalente.

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