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Cómo informar el dinero para la universidad recibido de FAFSA en una declaración de impuestos federales

Updated for Tax Year 2016


OVERVIEW

Cada asignación financiera que recibes del gobierno federal deberá tener consecuencias fiscales separadas y únicas para tu declaración de impuestos federales.


Si eres como la mayoría de los estudiantes, hay posibilidades de que necesites algo de ayuda financiera para tu educación universitaria. El gobierno federal ofrece varios tipos de asistencia a los estudiantes si presentan una Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA – Solicitud Gratuita para Ayuda Financiera Estudiantil). Cada tipo de ayuda financiera que recibes tiene consecuencias fiscales separadas y únicas que se tratan de forma diferente en tu declaración de impuestos federales.

fafsa en una declaracion de impuestos federales

Paso 1: Excluye la beca Pell del ingreso gravable

Si tienes la ayuda de una beca Pell, no deberás incluir la cantidad de la misma en tu ingreso gravable federal a menos que utilices los fondos para propósitos no aprobados.

Generalmente, para que la beca Pell retenga su estado de “libre de impuestos”, debes ser un candidato a grado en la universidad y sólo utilizar los fondos para pagar la matrícula, las cuotas, los libros, los útiles y equipos. Sin embargo, si utilizas los fondos para pagar tu habitación y alimentación o incluso los gastos de viajes relacionados con la universidad, entonces deberás incluir la porción de la beca que utilizas para pagar estos gastos en el ingreso gravable.

Paso 2: Incluye tus ingresos por un premio de estudio y trabajo en tu declaración de impuestos

Muchos estudiantes tienen trabajos de medio día en su universidad como parte de su ayuda FAFSA. Aunque este dinero que ganas se pretende que facilite la carga financiera de asistir a la universidad, el ingreso es totalmente gravable en tu declaración de impuestos como cualquier otro ingreso por empleo.

Cuando prepares tu declaración de impuestos, debes incluir estas cantidades en la línea apropiada para sueldos y salarios.

Paso 3: Excluye de los ingresos gravables cualquier préstamo estudiantil del gobierno

Cuando tomas un préstamo estudiantil, como un préstamo Stafford, debes pagar todo el dinero con sus respectivos intereses. Por lo tanto, incluso aunque tu FAFSA enumere estos préstamos como parte de tu “ayuda financiera”, no se los trata como un ingreso gravable. Sin embargo, cuando comienzas a pagar estos préstamos, puedes calificar para una deducción del interés del préstamo estudiantil si tu ingreso no es demasiado alto y utilizas los fondos sólo para gastos relacionados con la universidad mientras estás en ella.

Paso 4: Evalúa cualquier ayuda financiera estatal que recibas

Muchos estados ofrecen asistencia financiera adicional a los estudiantes que presentan una FAFSA. Cualquier ayuda que recibas del estado está sujeta al mismo tratamiento de ingreso gravable federal que las del gobierno federal. Por ejemplo, si recibes una beca de tu estado que no devuelves, deberás tratarla como una beca Pell, que exige que utilices los fondos de cierta forma. Todos los préstamos estudiantiles respaldados por el estado también están excluidos del ingreso gravable.

Consejos

El tratamiento fiscal de tu ayuda financiera FAFSA es el mismo incluso aunque más tarde abandones la universidad, siempre y cuando inicialmente el uso de los fondos fue para pagar los gastos de la misma.

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The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.


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