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Cómo interpretar tablas de impuestos federales

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

Entender cómo usar las tablas de impuestos federales te hará más fácil calcular los impuestos que debes.


El siguiente artículo es correcto para sus impuestos de 2017, mismo que presentaras este año antes de la fecha límite de abril de 2018, incluyendo algunos cambios retroactivos debido a la aprobación de la reforma tributaria. Parte de la información fiscal mencionada a continuación cambiará el próximo año para su declaración de impuestos de 2018, pero no lo afectará este año.

Para ayudar a los individuos a calcular sus ingresos gravables, cada año el Internal Revenue Service (IRS) publica tablas de impuestos en las instrucciones de tu declaración de impuestos y en la Publicación 17 de la IRS. Entender cómo utilizar estas tablas te ayudará a que te resulte más fácil calcular los impuestos que debes o también te puede ofrecer un estimado de tus adeudos fiscales futuros en caso de que necesites hacer un presupuesto para ello.

impuestos federales

Paso 1 - Determina tu estado civil

El IRS te permite elegir cualquier estado civil para el que seas elegible. Esto es importante ya que la cantidad de tu deducción estándar puede variar dependiendo del estado civil que elijas. En 2017, por ejemplo, los contribuyentes solteros pueden reclamar una deducción estándar de US$6.350; sin embargo, si tú también calificas para presentarte como jefe de familia, tu deducción aumenta a US$9.350.

Paso 2 – Calcular tu ingreso gravable

Tu ingreso gravable es generalmente igual a tu ingreso bruto menos la deducción estándar por tu estado civil o el total de tus deducciones detalladas. Reduce tu ingreso por las cantidades de otras deducciones para las que eres elegible para reclamar más las exenciones que puedas tomar por ti y tus dependientes para llegar a tu ingreso gravable.

Las calculadoras en línea como TaxCaster te pueden ayudar con esto. Además, cuando usas TurboTax para preparar tus impuestos, nosotros calcularemos tu ingreso gravable por ti.

Paso 3 – Determina tu nivel de ingreso

Ubica la tabla de impuestos de la versión más reciente de la Publicación 17 del IRS. Busca el nivel de ingreso que contenga tu ingreso gravable en la columna de la izquierda de la tabla. Por ejemplo, si tienes US$33.460, utilizarás el nivel de ingreso que oscila desde U$S33.450 hasta US$33.500.

Paso 4 – Identifica tu estado civil tributario

Averigua tu estado civil tributario en la fila superior de la tabla. Cada estado civil tiene una columna diferente por lo tanto asegúrate de usar la que sea para tu estado civil ya que si no tendrás una cantidad equivocada de impuestos que debes.

Paso 5 – Encuentra la cantidad de impuestos que debes

Encuentra dónde se intersectan la fila con tu ingreso y la columna para tu estado civil. Esta es la cantidad de impuesto que debes. Para este ejemplo, si eres soltero, deberás encontrar dónde se intersectan la columna de soltero y la que oscila desde US$34.450 hasta US$34.500.

Deja que TurboTax haga el trabajo

Los pasos de arriba son para calcular los impuestos a mano. Si utilizas TurboTax, simplemente te haremos algunas preguntas simples sobre cosas como tu ingreso, tu casa y tu situación familiar y haremos todo el cálculo por ti. No necesitas saber nada sobre nivel de impuestos o tablas de impuestos (nosotros determinaremos el mejor estado civil para que consigas el mayor reembolso de impuestos que merezcas).

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