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Eventos Comunes de la Vida Que Afectan Tus Impuestos

Updated for Tax Year 2019


OVERVIEW

Si hay una cosa segura y constante en la vida, es que tus impuestos siempre estarán cambiando. Puede ser por eventos en tu vida, o por ajustes frecuentes a la legislación que pueden aumentar o disminuir tus impuestos. Aquí te mencionamos algunos eventos comunes en la vida que pueden afectar significativamente el resultado de tus impuestos.


Smiling woman holding cute baby

1. El Matrimonio

Aunque es poco probable que te cases con alguien sólo para pagar menos en impuestos, la verdad es que el casarte, muchas veces puede resultar en ahorros tributarios. Presentar una declaración de impuestos en conjunto muchas veces reduce las tasas de impuesto y aumenta las deducciones. Sin embargo, hay ciertas situaciones donde estar casado puede aumentar tus impuestos.

2. Llegan los bebés

Tener un bebé o reclamar dependientes puede reducir en gran medida tus tasas de impuestos. Un bebé no sólo puede otorgarte una deducción adicional de impuestos por dependientes, también te da acceso al Crédito Tributario por Hijos, además de una serie de otros posibles beneficios tributarios - desde créditos para la educación hasta el Crédito por Ingreso de Trabajo.

3. Gastos Educativos

Los costos asociados con gastos educativos, no sólo pueden pagar dividendos en términos de oportunidades de empleo y mejorar tu profesión, sino que también puede dar lugar a beneficios Tributarios. El Crédito de Oportunidad Americana y el Crédito Perpetuo de Aprendizaje (Lifetime Learning) pueden ayudarte a recuperar US$2,000 o más de tus gastos educativos calificados. Si estás pagando un préstamo estudiantil, puedes deducir hasta US$2,500 de los intereses pagados en tus impuestos.

El costo incurrido por obtener ciertas certificaciones o designaciones profesionales también se puede deducir en tus impuestos. Pero cabe señalar que hasta el año tributario 2017, estos costos se podían deducir como gastos de empleados no reembolsados si detallabas tus deducciones.  Sin embargo, después del 2017, solo los empleados por cuenta propia pueden deducir esta clase de costos si califican como un gasto de negocios.

4. Comprar o vender una casa

Al comprar una casa, hay muchas deducciones que puedes aprovechar, incluyendo los puntos pagados, los intereses hipotecarios y el impuesto a la propiedad inmueble. Si estas pensando en vender, puedes evitar pagar impuestos hasta en un máximo de US$500,000 en ganancias si presentan una declaración conjunta.

5. Aceptar un ascenso

Aunque es una gran recompensa, un aumento de salario puede subrite a otra escala de impuestos, aumentando así la cantidad que pagarás por cada dólar adicional que ganas. Por lo general es un buen negocio, pero vale la pena estar pendiente cuando se acerca el tiempo de pagar los impuestos. También podría ser una buena idea ajustar tus retenciones del W-4.

6. Contribuciones y distribuciones de retiro

Al contribuir a una cuenta de beneficio tributario como un plan 401K o una cuenta de jubilación individual (IRA por sus siglas en inglés) puedes obtener deducciones tributarias gratificantes. Y cuanto más contribuyes aún mejor. Sin embargo, una vez que empieces a retirar dinero de tu plan, probablemente tengas que pagar impuestos sobre  esa distribución..

7. Aceptar una Herencia

La mayoría del dinero recibido de una herencia es libre de impuestos. Sin embargo, si recibes una cuenta de jubilación individual (IRA por sus siglas en inglés) como parte de la herencia, probablemente tendrás que pagar impuestos sobre cualquier distribución o retiro. Si recibes una propiedad, ten en cuenta que hay un "aumento" en el costo o la base de la propiedad al valor de la misma en el momento de la muerte del difunto. Pero si la propiedad gana valor después de eso, esas ganancias serán tributables.

8. Lidiando con la muerte

En el año que mueras, tu representante personal tendrá que presentar una declaración de impuestos final a tu nombre, tal como si aún estuvieras vivo. Tu cónyuge puede presentar una declaración conjunta para ese año si él o ella así lo desea. Dependiendo del tamaño y la composición de tus bienes, puede que haya que preparar una declaración de impuestos sobre tu caudal hereditario. Después de distribuir los bienes de tu patrimonio, es responsabilidad de tus herederos individualmente presentar sus propias declaraciones de impuestos en el futuro.

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