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Pasos para reclamar a un padre adulto mayor como un dependiente

Updated for Tax Year 2019


OVERVIEW

Si cuidas a un padre anciano, él podría calificar como tu dependiente, lo que resultaría en beneficios tributarios adicionales para ti.


 

 

pasos para reclamar a un padre adulto mayor como un dependiente

La primera cosa que viene a la mente cuando se consideran a los dependientes es la relación padre/hijo. Pero si cuidas a un padre anciano, tu padre puede calificar como tu dependiente, lo que resultaría en beneficios tributarios adicionales para ti. Una vez que determines que ambos cumplen con los criterios del IRS (siglas en inglés del Servicio de Impuestos Internos), puedes reclamar a tu padre como dependiente en tu declaración de impuestos.

Limitación de Ingresos

Tu padre debe primero cumplir con los requisitos de ingresos establecidos por el IRS para ser reclamado como tu dependiente. Para calificar como dependiente,

  • Tu padre no puede haber ganado o recibido una cantidad mayor a la exención personal para el año tributario en curso.
  • Esta cantidad es determinada por el IRS y puede cambiar de año en año.
  • Puedes encontrar las cantidades actuales de exención personal en la Publicación 501 del IRS, Exenciones, Deducción Estándar y Información de presentación.
  • En general, no se toman en cuenta los ingresos del Seguro Social, pero hay excepciones. Si tu padre tiene otros ingresos, como por ejemlo, intereses o dividendos, una parte del Seguro Social también puede estar sujeto a impuestos.

Requisito de manutención

Debes haber proporcionado más de la mitad de la manutención de tus padres durante el año tributario con el fin de reclamarlo como dependiente.  La cantidad provista como sustento debe superar el ingreso de tu padres por al menos un dolar.

Al determinar el valor monetario de la cantidad de apoyo que proporcionas, debes tener en cuenta varios factores:

  • Calcula el valor justo de mercado de la habitación que tu padre ocupa en tu casa. Pregúntate cuánto alquiler puedes cobrar a un inquilino por el espacio.
  • Considera el costo de los alimentos que proporcionas.
  • No te olvides de incluir los servicios públicos, gastos médicos y gastos generales de vida que también pagas.
  • Compara el valor de la manutención que prestas con cualquier ingreso, incluido el Seguro Social, que tu padre recibe para determinar si cumples con el requisito de asistencia.

Deducción de los gastos médicos

Si pagaste por la atención médica de tu padre, es posible que puedas deducir los gastos. Puedes reclamar los gastos médicos como una deducción detallada en el Anexo A. Las deducciones detalladas son beneficiosas cuando superan la cantidad de la deducción estándar que se te permite reclamar.

  • Puedes deducir los gastos médicos de tu padre incluso si no cumple con el requisito de ingresos para ser declarado como tu dependiente, siempre y cuando le proporciones más de la mitad de su manutención.
  • El total de gastos médicos, incluyendo el costo de los medicamentos recetados, los equipos, la atención hospitalaria y las visitas al médico, debe superar el 10% de tu ingreso bruto ajustado para que puedas reclamar estos gastos médicos en el 2019 (7.5% en el 2017 y 2018). 

Crédito por cuidado de dependientes

El crédito por cuidado hijos y dependientes es un crédito fiscal no reembolsable.  Puede ser reclamado por los contribuyentes que pagan por el cuidado de un individuo calificado y cumplen con otros requisitos.

  • Si tu padre está física o mentalmente incapacitado de cuidarse a sí mismo, es un individuo calificado.
  • Necesitas tener ingresos y gastos relacionados con el trabajo para calificar. Esto significa que el cuidado debe haber sido recibido mientras estabas trabajando o buscando trabajo.
  • Además, debes ser capaz de identificar propiamente al proveedor del cuidado. Esto incluye dar el nombre del proveedor, dirección y número de identificación (ya sea el número de Seguro Social o el número de identificación del empleador).
  • Si estás casado pero presentas una declaración separada de tu cónyuge, no puedes reclamar este crédito.

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