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Pasos para reclamar a un padre adulto mayor como un dependiente

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

Si cuidas a un padre anciano, él puede calificar como tu dependiente, lo que resulta en beneficios fiscales adicionales para ti.


 

El siguiente artículo es correcto para sus impuestos de 2017, mismo que presentaras este año antes de la fecha límite de abril de 2018, incluyendo algunos cambios retroactivos debido a la aprobación de la reforma tributaria. Parte de la información fiscal mencionada a continuación cambiará el próximo año para su declaración de impuestos de 2018, pero no lo afectará este año.

La primera cosa que viene a la mente cuando se consideran a los dependientes es la relación padre/hijo. En muchos casos, los padres reclaman a sus hijos como dependientes hasta que son adultos. Pero también funciona al revés. Si cuidas a un padre anciano, tu padre puede calificar como tu dependiente, lo que resulta en beneficios fiscales adicionales para ti. Una vez que determines que ambos cumplen con los criterios del IRS (siglas en inglés de Servicio de Impuestos Internos), puedes reclamar a tu padre como dependiente en tu declaración de impuestos.

pasos para reclamar a un padre adulto mayor como un dependiente

Imitación de Ingresos

Tu padre debe primero cumplir con los requisitos de ingresos establecidos por el IRS para ser reclamado como tus dependiente. Para calificar como dependiente, tu padre no debe haber ganado o recibido más de la cantidad de la exención para el año fiscal. Esta cantidad es determinada por el IRS y puede cambiar de año en año. Las cantidades actuales de exención se pueden encontrar en la Publicación 501 del IRS, Exenciones, Deducción Estándar y Presentación de Información. En general, no se tienen en cuenta los ingresos del Seguro Social, pero hay excepciones. Si tu padre tiene otros ingresos por intereses o dividendos, una parte del Seguro Social también puede ser gravable.

Requisito de manutención

Debes haber proporcionado más de la mitad de la manutención de tus padres durante el año fiscal con el fin de reclamarlo como dependiente. Al determinar el valor monetario de la cantidad de apoyo que proporcionas, debes tener en cuenta varios factores.

Calcula el valor justo de mercado de la habitación que tu padre ocupa en tu casa. Pregúntate cuánto alquiler puedes cobrar a un inquilino por el espacio.

A continuación, considera el costo de los alimentos que proporcionas. No te olvides de incluir los servicios públicos, gastos médicos y gastos generales de vida que también pagas. Compara el valor de la manutención que prestas con cualquier ingreso, incluido el Seguro Social, que tu padre recibe para determinar si cumples con el requisito de asistencia. La cuantía de la ayuda que entregas debe superar los ingresos de tu padre por lo menos en un dólar.

Descuento de los gastos médicos

Si pagaste por la atención médica de tu padre, es posible que puedas descontar los gastos. Puedes reclamar los gastos médicos como una deducción detallada en la Lista A. Los descuentos detallados son beneficiosos cuando se supera el importe que la deducción estándar te permite reclamar. El total de gastos médicos, incluyendo el costo de los medicamentos recetados, los equipos, la atención hospitalaria y las visitas al médico, debe superar el 7.5% de tu ingreso bruto ajustado para que puedas reclamar estos gastos médicos. El IRS entiende la pesada carga que los gastos médicos a veces crean y han hecho una excepción para esta deducción.

Puedes deducir los gastos médicos de tu padre incluso si no cumple con el requisito de ingresos para ser declarado como tu dependiente, siempre y cuando le proporciones más de la mitad de su manutención.

A partir del 1 de enero de 2019, todos los contribuyentes pueden deducir solo el monto del total de los gastos de atención médica permitidos no reembolsados del año que exceda el 10% de su AGI.

Crédito por cuidado de dependientes

El crédito de niños y de cuidado de dependientes es un crédito fiscal no reembolsable. Se puede reclamar por los contribuyentes que pagan por el cuidado de un individuo calificado y cumplen con otros requisitos. Si tu padre está física o mentalmente incapacitado de cuidarse a sí mismo, es un individuo calificado.

Para que puedas calificar para el crédito, debes cumplir con ciertos requisitos. Necesitas tener ingresos y gastos relacionados con el trabajo para calificar. Esto significa que el cuidado debe haber sido recibido mientras estabas trabajando o buscando trabajo. Además, debes ser capaz de identificar correctamente a tu proveedor de atención médica. Esto incluye dar el nombre del proveedor, dirección y número de identificación (ya sea el número de Seguro Social o el número de identificación del empleador). Si estás casado pero presentas una declaración separada de tu cónyuge, no puedes reclamar este crédito.

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