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¿Qué son las exenciones fiscales?

Updated for Tax Year 2016


OVERVIEW

Las exenciones fiscales vienen en muchas formas, pero una cosa que todas tienen en común es que son para reducir o eliminar por completo tu obligación de pagar impuestos. La mayoría de los contribuyentes tienen derecho a una exención en su declaración de impuestos que reduce su factura de impuestos de la misma manera que una deducción. Los gobiernos federales y estatales con frecuencia eximen por completo del pago de impuestos a las organizaciones cuando sirven al público, como es el caso de las organizaciones benéficas y de las religiosas.


Exenciones personales

Si no figuras como dependiente en la declaración de otro contribuyente, entonces puedes reclamar una exención personal de impuestos. Esta es una cantidad fija que generalmente aumenta cada año. La exención reduce tu ingreso gravable tal como una deducción, pero tiene menos restricciones para reclamarla. Si estás casado y presentas una declaración de impuestos conjunta, tanto tú como tu cónyuge recibirán una exención.

que son las exenciones fiscales

Exenciones de dependientes

El IRS (siglas en inglés de Servicio de Impuestos Internos) te permite tomar exenciones adicionales por cada dependiente a reclamar. Con frecuencia, el origen de estas excepciones son los niños que viven contigo durante más de la mitad del año, menores de 19 años (o menores de 24 si son estudiantes de tiempo completo) y que no aportan más de la mitad de su propio apoyo financiero durante el año fiscal. Algunos de tus familiares también pueden calificar para ser tus dependientes si viven contigo e incluso a tus padres aunque vivan en otra parte.

Las organizaciones exentas

Para que una organización reciba la exención de impuestos, deben cumplir todos los requisitos del IRS. En general, se trata de organizaciones que no operan con fines de lucro y proporcionan valiosos servicios a la comunidad, como una obra de caridad. Si una organización recibe la exención de impuestos, no está obligada a pagar impuesto sobre la renta federal, pero debe mantener registros precisos para mantener su estatus. Las donaciones que realices en estas organizaciones por lo general dan derecho a reclamar una deducción por contribución benéfica si la detallas. 

Exenciones estatales y locales

Los gobiernos estatales, del condado y municipales también ofrecen exenciones fiscales a las empresas para estimular la economía local. Por ejemplo, una empresa puede estar exenta del pago de impuestos locales a la propiedad si muda sus operaciones a un área geográfica en particular. En Massachusetts, el estado ofrece a muchas compañías de telecomunicaciones que ofrecen televisión por cable, acceso a Internet y a las transmisiones públicas de radio y televisión una exención del impuesto sobre las ventas. Muchas ciudades y estados también ofrecen vacaciones de impuestos de ventas donde los consumidores pueden comprar productos sin tener que pagar impuestos sobre las ventas estatales o locales.  

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The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.


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