If you cared for an elderly parent, your parent may qualify as your dependent, resulting in additional tax benefits for you.
• A parent may qualify as a dependent if their gross income doesn't exceed $4,700 (tax year 2023) and the support you provide exceeds their income by at least one dollar during the tax year.
• Social Security income generally doesn't count toward your parent’s gross income, but there are exceptions, such as when your parent has other income from interest or dividends.
• You can count the fair market value of the room your parent occupies in your home, the cost of food you provide, medical bills, and other living expenses that you also pay as your support.
• If you paid more than 7.5% of your adjusted gross income for your parent's medical care, you may be able to claim their medical expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A, even if they don't meet the income requirement to be claimed as your dependent.
Claiming parents as dependents
Your parent must first meet income requirements set by the Internal Revenue Service to be claimed as your dependent. To qualify as a dependent,
- Your parent must not have earned or received more than the gross income test limit for the tax year.
- This amount is determined by the IRS and may change from year to year.
- The gross income limit for 2023 is $4,700.
- Generally, you do not count Social Security income, but there are exceptions. If your parent has other income from interest or dividends, a portion of the Social Security may also be taxable.
You must have provided more than half of your parent's support during the tax year in order to claim them as a dependent. The amount of support you provided must also exceed your parent's income by at least one dollar.
When determining the monetary value of the amount of support you provide, you need to consider several factors:
- Calculate the fair market value of the room your parent occupies in your home. Ask yourself how much rent you could charge a tenant for the space.
- Consider the cost of food that you provide.
- Remember to include utilities, medical bills and general living expenses that you also pay.
- Compare the value of support you provide with any income, including Social Security, that your parent receives to determine whether you meet the support requirements.
TurboTax Tip: If your parents are physically or mentally unable to care for themselves and you pay for their care so you are able to work or look for work, you may be eligible to receive the Child and Dependent Care Credit, a non-refundable tax credit.
Deducting medical expenses
If you paid for your parent's medical care, you may be able to claim medical expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A. Itemized deductions are beneficial when they exceed the amount of the standard deduction you are allowed to claim.
- You can deduct your parent's medical expenses even if they do not meet the income requirement to be claimed as your dependent as long as you provide more that half of their support.
- Your total medical expenses, including all costs for prescription drugs, equipment, hospital care and doctor's visits, must exceed 7.5 percent of your adjusted gross income to claim these expenses.
Dependent care credit
- If your parent is physically or mentally unable to care for themselves, they are a qualifying individual.
- You need to have earned income and work-related expenses. This means that the care must have been provided while you were either working or looking for work.
- You must be able to properly identify your care provider. This includes giving the provider's name, address and identifying number (either Social Security number or employer identification number).
- If you are married but file a separate return from your spouse, you may not claim this credit.
For 2021 only:
- The amount of qualifying expenses increases from $3,000 to $8,000 for one qualifying person and from $6,000 to $16,000 for two or more qualifying individuals
- The percentage of qualifying expenses eligible for the credit increases from 35% to 50%
- The beginning of the reduction of the credit is increased from $15,000 to $125,000 of adjusted gross income (AGI).
Also for tax year 2021, the maximum amount that can be contributed to a dependent care flexible spending account and the amount of tax-free employer-provided dependent care benefits is increased from $5,000 to $10,500.
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