1. TurboTax /
  2. Tax Calculators & Tips /
  3. Tax Tips Guides & Videos /
  4. Tax Refund /
  5. Do the Math: Understanding Your Tax Refund

Do the Math: Understanding Your Tax Refund

Updated for Tax Year 2017


OVERVIEW

For most people, tax is collected by an employer at a rate that estimates your tax for the year. Your actual earnings and the deductions that you’re allowed to claim might cause you to pay too much tax, which leads the Internal Revenue Service to issue you a refund. "The idea behind a tax refund is quite simple," says James Windsor, a certified public accountant from Ann Arbor, Michigan. "When you pay more tax than you owe, the Internal Revenue Service returns the overpayment as your refund."


Income tax withholding

When you start a new job, you’ll complete Form W-4. This is the Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate, from which your employer determines your rate of tax withholding. It’s based on the personal allowances you declare or calculate, your income and any additional tax you wish to withhold. The IRS recommends that you complete a new W-4 annually or whenever your life circumstances change, to prevent having tax deducted at an unrealistic rate. If you regularly owe taxes when you file your return, or if you have other income sources or deductions that may affect your tax rate, adding an additional withheld amount on line 6 of your W-4 may put you in a refund position.

understand your tax refund

Using tax deductions

There are ways to get a refund when you file your return. You need to reduce the taxable portion of your income to swing your tax return toward the refund side. Tax deductions you qualify for will reduce your taxable income. The standard deduction offered by the IRS is a simple way to reduce your taxable income, but you have the option to calculate your own itemized deductions, using your actual deductible expenses.

If you have a qualifying home office or other business expenses that you pay for under terms of your employment you may be eligible to deduct those expenses from your income. If you own a home, the interest on your mortgage and your property taxes are generally deductible. TurboTax can guide you through the process of itemizing your deductions.

Using tax credits

While tax deductions reduce your income, the effect is that they only reduce your tax by a portion of the amount deducted. Tax credits, on the other hand, reduce taxes dollar-for-dollar and frequently address hot-topic expenditures, such as energy efficiency initiatives. Other high-return credits include:

  • The Earned Income Tax Credit
  • The Child and Dependent Care Credit
  • The Child Tax Credit
  • The Retirement Savings Contributions Credit
  • The American Opportunity Tax Credit

Even the Affordable Care Act spawned the Premium tax credit, to assist modest income earners who purchase health insurance coverage through state and federal health insurance marketplaces.

Savings plans and deferred tax

Tax deferral is another way to increase this year’s refund, while providing for yourself down the road. Individual retirement accounts are a common way to accomplish this. Deductible contributions to a qualifying plan reduce your taxable in the year you make them, and income tax is paid when you withdraw funds. Ideally, your tax rate after retirement will be lower than when contributions are made, so you end up paying less tax down the road, as well as increasing your tax refund in the current year.

Not all IRAs are alike. A Roth IRA, for example, takes after-tax contributions and pays out tax-free at retirement. That’s a good idea if you expect tax rate to be higher in retirement.

Contributions to health and education savings plans can also reduce taxable income and increase your refund the year made, and, if used for the intended purpose, may be tax-free upon withdrawal.

Get every deduction you deserve

TurboTax Deluxe searches more than 350 tax deductions and credits so you get your maximum refund, guaranteed.

For only $59.99$39.99*
Start for Free

Looking for more information?

The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.


Security is built into everything we do
Here's how
* Important Offer Details and Disclosures
  • TURBOTAX ONLINE/MOBILE

  • Try for Free/Pay When You File: TurboTax online and mobile pricing is based on your tax situation and varies by product. Absolute Zero $0 federal (forms 1040EZ/1040A) + $0 state limited time offer only available with TurboTax Free Edition; offer may change or end at any time without notice. Actual prices are determined at the time of print or e-file and are subject to change without notice. Savings and price comparisons based on anticipated price increase. Special discount offers may not be valid for mobile in-app purchases.
  • QuickBooks Self-Employed Offer with TurboTax Self-Employed: To receive your complimentary subscription to QuickBooks Self-Employed through 4/30/19, you must pay for your 2017 TurboTax Self-Employed return by 4/17/18 and sign-in and access your QuickBooks Self-Employed account via mobile app or at https://selfemployed.intuit.com/turbotax at least twice by 7/15/18. You will have the option of renewing your QuickBooks Self-Employed subscription by 4/30/19 for another year at the then-current subscription rate. You may cancel your subscription at any time from within the QuickBooks Self-Employed billing section. See QuickBooks.com for price comparison. Offer not valid for existing QuickBooks Self-Employed subscribers already on a payment plan.
  • Pays for itself (TurboTax Self-Employed): Estimates based on deductible business expenses calculated at the self-employment tax income rate (15%) for tax year 2017. Actual results will vary based on your tax situation.
  • Anytime, anywhere: Internet access required; standard data rates apply to download and use mobile app.
  • Fastest refund possible: Fastest tax refund with e-file and direct deposit; tax refund time frames will vary.
  • Pay for TurboTax out of your federal refund: A $X.XX Refund Processing Service fee applies to this payment method. Prices are subject to change without notice.
  • TurboTax Help and Support: Access to a TurboTax specialist is included with TurboTax Deluxe, Premier, Self-Employed and TurboTax Live; not included with Free Edition (but is available as an upgrade). TurboTax specialists are available to provide general customer help and support using the TurboTax product. SmartLook on-screen help is available on a PC, laptop or the TurboTax mobile app. Service, area of expertise, experience levels, wait times, hours of operation and availability vary, and are subject to restriction and change without notice.
  • Tax Advice, Expert Review and TurboTax Live: Access to tax advice and Expert Review (the ability to have a Tax Expert review and/or sign your tax return) is included with TurboTax Live or as an upgrade from another version, and available through October 15, 2018. These services are provided only by credentialed CPAs, EAs or tax attorneys. State tax advice is free. Some tax topics or situations may not be included as part of this service, which shall be determined in the tax expert’s sole discretion. In the event your return is reviewed by a tax expert and requires a significant level of tax advice or actual preparation, the tax expert may be required to sign your return as the preparer at which point they will assume primary responsibility for the preparation of your return. Expert Review [and TurboTax Live] not available on the TurboTax mobile app or when using a web browser on your mobile phone. On-screen help is available on a PC, laptop or the TurboTax mobile app. Service, area of expertise, experience levels, wait times, hours of operation and availability vary, and are subject to restriction and change without notice.
  • Tax Return Access and My Docs features: Included with TurboTax Deluxe, Premier, Self-Employed, TurboTax Live or with PLUS benefits. Access to all tax-related documents we have on file for you is available through 10/31/2019. Terms and conditions may vary and are subject to change without notice.
  • #1 best-selling tax software: Based on aggregated sales data for all tax year 2016 TurboTax products.
  • Most Popular: TurboTax Deluxe is our most popular product among TurboTax Online users with more complex tax situations.
  • CompleteCheck: Covered under the TurboTax accurate calculations and maximum refund guarantees.
  • #1 rated online tax prep provider: Based on independent comparison of the best online tax software by TopTenReviews.com March 13, 2017.
  • Get tips based on your tax and credit data to help get you to where you want to be: Tax and credit data accessed upon your consent.
  • TURBOTAX CD/DOWNLOAD SOFTWARE

  • TurboTax CD/Download products: Price includes tax preparation and printing of federal tax returns and free federal e-file of up to 5 federal tax returns. Additional fees apply for e-filing state returns. E-file fees do not apply to New York state returns. Savings and price comparison based on anticipated price increase. Prices subject to change without notice.
  • Fastest refund possible: Fastest tax refund with e-file and direct deposit; tax refund time frames will vary.
  • Pay for TurboTax out of your federal refund: A $X.XX Refund Processing Service fee applies to this payment method. Prices are subject to change without notice. This benefit is available with TurboTax Federal products except TurboTax Business.
  • About our TurboTax Product Experts: Customer service and product support vary by time of year.
  • About our credentialed tax experts: Live tax advice via phone is included with Premier and Home & Business; fees apply for Basic and Deluxe customers. State tax advice is free. Service, experience levels, hours of operation and availability vary, and are subject to restriction and change without notice. Not available for TurboTax Business customers.
  • #1 best-selling tax software: Based on aggregated sales data for all tax year 2016 TurboTax products.
  • Data Import: Imports financial data from participating companies; may require a free Intuit online account. Quicken and QuickBooks import not available with TurboTax installed on a Mac. Imports from Quicken (2016 and higher) and QuickBooks Desktop (2012 and higher); both Windows only. Quicken import not available for TurboTax Business. Quicken products provided by Quicken Inc., Quicken import subject to change.