All citizens must pay taxes. How are these federal taxes being spent?
The country's budget
The tax system attempts to ensure that everyone contributes their fair share to the working of the government and national economy.
The federal taxes you pay are used by the government to invest in the country and to provide goods and services for the benefit of the American people.
The three biggest categories of expenditures are:
- Major health programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid
- Social security
- Defense and security
Interest on the national debt and various safety net programs such as low-income assistance comprise a sizable chunk of national expenditures, while other categories such as transportation and infrastructure spending round out the government budget.
Defense and security
Defense and security typically constitutes a significant portion of government expenditures, although the amounts change annually along with the rest of the budget.
Defense and security spending is considered a discretionary portion of the federal budget. Spending in this category includes Department of Defense and Homeland Security Agency expenses.
For the 2023 budget, defense spending equaled about $891 billion, or approximately 9 percent of the federal budget.
Payments for the Social Security system constituted about 21 percent of the federal budget in 2023, with expenditures of about $1.3 trillion. The Social Security system provides retirement and survivors' benefits along with disability payments and is categorized as a mandatory portion of the federal budget.
Major health programs
The major health programs in the federal budget are Medicare, Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP).
About two-thirds of the federal health program budget goes to Medicare, as Medicaid and the CHIP require matching payments from individual states. For the 2023 budget year, about 25 percent of the federal budget goes towards these health programs.
Safety net programs
Safety net programs typically constitute about 11 percent of the federal budget. This category includes all aid programs for low- and mid-income families that are not a part of Social Security or the major health programs.
- Unemployment insurance
- Food stamps
- Low-income housing assistance
- Programs for abused and neglected children
Interest on the national debt
Interest on the national debt will total about $640 billion according to the 2023 federal budget, or about 7 percent of total expenditures.
Approximately 23 percent of the federal budget goes into other categories of spending. The largest of these sub-categories, at about 7 percent of the budget, is spending on benefits for federal retirees and veterans.
Remaining expenses include scientific and medical research, transportation and infrastructure spending, education, non-security international spending and all other categories.
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