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¿Qué son los impuestos estatales sobre la renta?


OVERVIEW

Los impuestos estatales sobre la renta, que varían según el estado, son un porcentaje de dinero que se paga al gobierno estatal sobre la base de los ingresos que ganas con tu trabajo. Aquí hay algunos detalles.


Introducción

Al igual que el gobierno federal, los estados imponen impuestos adicionales sobre la renta a tus ganancias si tienes una conexión suficiente con el estado. Aunque cada estado tiene la autoridad para crear su propio sistema de imposición de impuestos, la mayoría de las jurisdicciones utilizan una estructura similar a la del gobierno federal. Sin embargo, una minoría de estados imponen el impuesto sobre la renta con un porcentaje único para todos los contribuyentes o incluso no cobran el impuesto.

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Tasas únicas de impuestos

Sólo siete estados tienen una tasa única de impuesto a la renta. Esto son Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Pensilvania y Utah. Un impuesto de tasa única, a veces llamado impuesto justo, grava a la misma tasa a todos los niveles de ingresos. En 2016, por ejemplo, el impuesto sobre la renta único tuvo una tasa de 3,3 por ciento en Indiana hasta una del 5,1 por ciento en Massachusetts. Esto significa que si ganas US$100.000 en Indiana, sólo pagas US$3.300 en impuestos estatales. Y si ganas US$ 1 millón, sigues pagando un 3,3 por ciento, o US$33.000.

Estados sin un impuesto sobre la renta

También hay siete estados que no imponen un impuesto sobre la renta en absoluto. Estos son Alaska, Florida, Nevada, Dakota del Sur, Texas, Washington y Wyoming. La falta de un impuesto sobre la renta no quiere decir que los ciudadanos de estos estados no paguen impuestos al estado. Los residentes en cada uno de estos estados tienen que pagar una variedad de otros impuestos estatales comunes, incluyendo un impuesto sobre las ventas, uno a la gasolina, un impuesto a los cigarrillos y los impuestos a la propiedad. Según los datos recopilados por la Tax Foundation, sin embargo, los residentes de los estados que no tienen impuesto sobre la renta siempre tienen una menor presión fiscal por habitante que los que viven en estados que sí lo hacen.

Tasas impositivas graduales

La mayoría de los restantes 36 estados y el Distrito de Columbia tienen un sistema de impuestos sobre la renta que se asemeja al del gobierno federal. Para ello es necesario que tus ingresos se graven con distintas tasas que aumentan a medida que aumenta tu ingreso anual. En general, sin embargo, las leyes estatales de impuesto sobre la renta son más sencillas que el código tributario federal, con un menor número de rangos de impuestos y tasas más bajas. Algunos estados tienen leyes tributarias que ajustan automáticamente los rangos impositivos según las tasas de inflación.

Deducción de impuestos estatales sobre la renta

Si eres uno de los muchos contribuyentes que paga impuestos estatales sobre la renta, el IRS te permite reclamar una deducción en tu declaración de impuestos federal por ellos. La deducción del impuesto sobre la renta estatal sólo está disponible si eres elegible para detallar las deducciones en tu declaración federal.

La elegibilidad para detallar tus deducciones requiere que el total de tus gastos anuales deducibles, incluyendo tu impuesto estatal sobre la renta sean superiores al monto de la deducción estándar para tu estado civil en la declaración. En 2016, por ejemplo, un contribuyente único puede reclamar una deducción  estándar de US$6,300. Por lo tanto, si pagas más de US$6.300 en impuestos estatales sobre la renta, entonces eres elegible para efectuar el detallado. Si no, entonces debes tener otros gastos deducibles, además de los impuestos estatales, que sumen en total al menos US$ 6.301.

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The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.


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