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¿Cómo puedo reclamar a alguien como dependiente en la declaración de impuestos?


OVERVIEW

Cuando preparas tu declaración de impuestos, es probable que quieras buscar todas las deducciones posibles para reducir la cantidad de impuestos que debes. Un modo de hacer esto es reclamando a tus hijos u otros familiares calificados como dependientes. Descubre más acerca de solicitar dependientes en tu declaración de impuestos en este artículo de consejos fiscales.


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Resumen

Cuando preparas tu declaración federal de impuestos, es probable que quieras buscar todas las deducciones posibles para reducir la cantidad de impuestos que debes. Un modo de hacer esto es reclamando a tus hijos u otros familiares calificados como dependientes. Cada persona presentada como tu dependiente disminuye el monto del ingreso total gravable con una exención. Cada dependiente debe cumplir con requisitos de edad, relación, residencia y manutención. Además, cada persona puede ser reclamada de esta manera en sólo una declaración federal de impuestos al año. Por esta razón, si compartes la custodia con una ex-pareja, solo uno de ustedes puede informar que el niño está a su cargo.

Paso 1: Formulario 1040/1040A

Utiliza un Formulario 1040 o un Formulario 1040A para presentar tu declaración de impuestos por ingresos. Aunque el Formulario 1040EZ es más simple de preparar, no permite que puedas reclamar dependientes.

Paso 2: Provee información de tus dependientes

En la primera página de tu declaración de impuestos debes ingresar el nombre completo de tus dependientes, sus números de Seguridad Social y la relación que mantienen contigo. Si tienes más de cuatro dependientes, marca el campo apropiado y lista su información en una página separada.

Reclamar a un niño generalmente requiere que él viva contigo por más de la mitad del año, que no provea más de la mitad de su propia manutención y que sea menor de 19 años de edad o de 24, si es que es un estudiante a tiempo completo. Presentar a adultos como personas a tu cargo está permitido si satisfacen requisitos similares.

Paso 3: Crédito fiscal por niños

Evalúa si puedes pedir el crédito fiscal por niños. Luego de ingresar toda la información de los dependientes, el formulario te permite marcar un casillero por cada dependiente que califique para pedir un crédito fiscal por niño. Generalmente, puedes pedir el crédito por cada niño que esté a tu cargo que sea menor de 17 años de edad a lo largo de todo el año. Si calificas, el crédito ofrece una reducción de tipo dólar por dólar en tu deuda fiscal final para ese año.

Paso 4: Suma el número de dependientes reclamados

Puedes pedir una exención por cada dependiente que reclames más una para ti y para tu cónyuge. Una exención es un monto fijo sujeto a cambios cada año que reduce tu ingreso gravable del mismo modo que lo hacen las deducciones.

En el 2012, por ejemplo, el monto de la exención es de US$3.800. Multiplica este monto por la cantidad de exenciones que tienes permitidas e ingresa el total en tu declaración de impuestos.

Cosas que necesitarás:

- Formulario 1040 o 1040A.

The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.

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